All Muslim countries, with may be one or two exceptions, are totally controlled by the triangle of theocracy, bureaucracy and aristocracy. It must be noted that after the fall of Ottoman Empire, itself a very corrupt regime, in world war two, almost all of the Muslim world was colonized by western powers. This was the result of a colonization process which was going on for, at least, centuries. While this colonization was being strengthened and expanded, the resistance to colonialism was also building in Muslim, and other parts of the world. By the middle of twentieth century, especially after the serious disaster and damages caused by Second World War, it became impossible for most western powers to maintain political control over Muslim world.
Muslim countries were liberated one after the other, all around the world. But, the colonial powers made sure to maintain their control from outside. This was made sure in the following ways:
1) Religious groups and parties were erected and funded, to give it a religious flavor.
2) Military and civil bureaucratic training was made sure to happen in highly westernized academies, to maintain the indirect administrative control over these countries.
3) Elites were awarded with huge lands, money and powerful positions in government. There next generations were made sure to get educated and trained in western world. These elites along with the westernized bureaucracy and sold out theocracy, were supposed to be determine the fate of Muslim countries and guarantee the safeguard of western interests.
This worked very well in the beginning. But, soon, the obvious results of this ridiculous setup, started to crop up. A dichotomy of Muslim societies was becoming very obvious, day by day. On one hand, there was the ruling triangle or elites, protecting their own and western interests. On the other hand, commons or general population, being increasingly left out, from reaping the fruits of newly gained independence.
At the top of all of this, most probably due to its origin, the way it was designed, and the way it grew up and expanded, the ruling triangle, was extremely corrupt and class oriented. They had a very firm grip on virtually everything like government, media, money, economy, education, healthcare, land, industry, business, etc. The entry for commons, into any of these was, and still is, none to extremely limited. As the retaliation and rebellion grew against the ruling class and struggle started, the masses always found western world on the side of their masters. After all they were playing the game for their western masters.
So, the anger and reaction against the ruling class, was gradually diverted and redirected towards the western countries. People firmly believed that all their ongoing misery was due to the western countries, their interference in national affairs and incredible influence on ruling class. This situation was extremely favorable for the opportunists who wanted to cash this out. The cold war between Soviet and American block, soon provided them an opportunity to cash the situation in two or even three ways. Soviet Union attacked Afghanistan and United States was desperately looking to build up an effective resistance.
In Muslim Afghanistan, filled with extremely hard and rugged terrain, Islam was only hope against socialist and Godless Soviet Union. So, CIA hired people like Usama-Bin-Laden, Mulla Umar and Gulbadeen Hikmatyar. Due to the innate religious diversity and differences among different Islamic factions, these people, along with others, organized different resistance groups, based on various Islamic factions, mostly the extreme ones, with a common goal of fighting and defeating communist Soviet Union. Pakistan, a long time U.S. ally became pivotal in running and organizing the resistance. Pakistan took several steps, of course with the help of money, weapons and personnel provided by CIA, to make sure that operation was a success.
1) It opened its borders for Afghan refugees. An incredible number of 30 million refugees entered Pakistan. Refugee camps, financed by U.S., CIA and U.N. were built on a very large scale. These camps became the bases for recruiting and training ‘Mujahedeen’, which means holy warriors.
2) Pakistan totally closed its eyes from all kind of militants coming to Pakistan to join the jihad against communism, and provided a very large number of visas with unlimited stay to most of those who wanted to join. They were not just personnel, many of them brought money and skills with them, critically necessary for the mission. Pakistan became an international hub with all kind of people wandering around in the country, from almost every part of Muslim world.
3) Established, maintained and ran semi-military training camps, near the Afghan border. This is where Mujahedeen were trained and provided with arms, weapons, ammunition and money.
4) The religious tone of the war, intentionally built by U.S., CIA, Pakistan and war lords, favored in the way that it attracted volunteers, fighters, money and other precious resources from all over the Muslim world. But, at the same time, it had serious drawbacks, too. It was giving rise to highly organized, trained, armed and religiously, super charged organizations and groups, who were meant to stay there long after the war was over.
In, about a decade long war, lots and lots of mujahedeen and Pakistani military personnel, directly commanding Mujahedeen in Afghanistan, died. But, they inflicted serious damages to Soviet Union, too. Large number of Soviet military personnel died, as well. Disabled and injured vets became increasing burden on an already bad Soviet economy. The biggest hit was financial. Soviet economy could not bear the incredible cost of war. Finally, Mujahedeen succeeded, and Soviet Union withdrew. This seriously damaged the Soviet image as a super power. The resistance and rebellion spread to the Muslim majority and other Soviet states. With the financial damage sustained by war, in hand, Soviet Union could not stand the uprising in its own country. It fell apart. This gave mujahedeen an impression, if they can defeat and breakdown Soviet Union, they can fight anyone.
U.S. made its biggest blunder, after war. Making, Pakistan’s nuclear test an excuse, U.S. suddenly withdrew all its aid to Pakistan.